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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards

Results of research in science and technology at the National Bureau of Standards were reported in Scientific Papers. The first 14 volumes of the Scientific Papers were issued as the Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards. These volumes date from 1904 to 1919. The separate papers were called Reprints.



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This paper is an extension and revision of a previous paper by Rosa and Cohen. It is now by far the most complete and thorough study of the subject that has yet been published. The authors have taken great pains to bring it thoroughly up to date, and have made a critical study of nearly all the recent papers on the subject. The comparisons of the results obtained by various authors and the invcstigations of the convergence of the various series that have been proposed have cleared up the whole...
Topics: inductance, Condensed matter, electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties
Formulae for the self and mutual inductances of straight wires and rectangles are to be found in various books and papers, but their demonstrations are usually omitted, and approximate formulae are often given as though they were exact. The author derives the expressions very simply from Laplace's formula instead of using Neumann's formula, and thus gives a much better physical view of their meaning. He also deduces some interesting new formulae. The assumption is made that the magnetic field...
Topics: inductance, Condensed matter, electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Topics: inductance, Electrical instruments and techniques
A new method is suggested for the absolute measurement of resistance. A revolving coil, or 2 such coils, are to be so disposed in the magnetic field of a pair of fixed coils as to yield an e.m.f. which can be compared, by means of a differential galvanometer, with the fall of potential through a fixed resistance, and so give the absolute value of the resistance. The advantage of this method would be that the e.m.f. generated could be a thousand times greater than in a Lorenz apparatus, while...
Topics: measurements and use of instruments, Condensed matter, electronic structure, electrical, magnetic,...
Gives some applications of the curve of visibility of radiation for the average eye (125 observers) to radiation problems. A mathematical equation is given of the average visibility curve. Using this visibility equation and Planck's equation of the black body, calculations are made of the luminous flux emitted by such a body at various temperatures, also the luminous efficiency, the Crova wave-length, and the mechanical equivalent of light. The visibility curve of the average eye gives the...
Topic: rays and radiation
A very thorough examination is made of the various formulae which have been proposed from time to time for calculating the mutual inductance of two circular coils of rectangular section. Numerous numerical calculations are made by the various formulae. It is pointed out which are the most accurate and where some of them fail. New formulae are deduced which are more convenient in special cases. Curves are drawn showing the relative accuracy of various formulae for particular coils at varying...
Topics: electromagnetic induction, Electrical instruments and techniques
This is a continuation of former papers, and consists of (1) an historical summary of the principal determinations up to the present of the value of the constant, sigma , of total radiation; (3) a new determination of by a method in which accurate corrections are made for lack of "blackness" of the radiator, for losses by reflections for variation of thickness of lampblack layer, and for atmospheric absorption. It is demonstrated that the presence of aqueous vapour in unmeasured...
Topics: rays and radiation, Heat flow, thermal and thermodynamic processes
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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After a consideration of the meaning of plastic as compared with viscous flow, the author goes on to describe experiments made to determine the laws governing the former. The different types of viscous and plastic flow are discussed theoretically. In the case of mixtures, according to circumstances the viscosities of the components may be additive, the fluidities may be additive (a special case of this is the suspension of solid in a fluid), or slipping or seepage may take place to modify the...
Topics: elasticity, viscosity, General Physics
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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The authors suggest the use of the name "inductor" for apparatus used to introduce "inductance" into a circuit, as well as "resistor" for apparatus possessing the property of "resistance." The paper describes the method of evolution and construction of an inductor having a range of variation of about 1 millihenry and a current-carrying capacity of about 5 amps. The form of apparatus considered to be most suitable is that consisting of two circular plates...
Topics: apparatus and instruments, Condensed matter, electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and...
The formulae of Rowland, Rayleigh, and Lyle for the mutual inductance of two coaxial coils of rectangular cross-section take second differentials only into account. The formulae of Weinstein and Stefan, however, take into account differential coefficients higher than the second. Weinstein deduces his formula by starting with Maxwell's expression in elliptic integrals for the mutual inductance of two coaxial circles, differentiating it and carrying the operation to the fourth order of...
Topics: electromagnetic induction, Electrical instruments and techniques
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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The Arsem vacuum furnace previously used was slightly modified, and arrangements were made to sweep out the smoke from the heated oxides which affects the optical pyrometer readings. The materials as a rule are charged into the ring space between an outer and an inner tube; some gas (hydrogen, nitrogen, etc.), is passed down the inner tube, into which the pyrometer is sighted. The tubes are made of graphite or of tungsten, the latter being moulded in graphite. The pyrometer lamps were...
Topics: freezing, melting and boiling points, materials properties, Heat flow, thermal and thermodynamic...
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Buckingham, E.
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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Dickinson, H.C.; Osborne, N.S.
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specific heat and latent heat; Heat flow, thermal and thermodynamic processes
Topic: USA
In the present series of experiments attention was directed to the porous cup and non-septum form of voltameter, the apparatus and methods being similar to those previously employed. With the small porous cup voltameter and silver nitrate believed to be pure an average value of 1.01827/sub 5/ int. volts was obtained for the Western normal cell at 20 degrees C., the average deviation of a single determination from the mean being 3 parts in 100,000. With the large porous cup voltameter heavier...
Topics: electrolysis, measurements and use of instruments, Electrical instruments and techniques
In a previous paper the authors deterined the melting-and freezing-points of a number of metals on the temperature scale defined by the Pt-resistace thermometer calibrated in ice, steam, and sulphur vapour (444.70 degrees on the constant-volume notrogen thermometer). In order to throw further light on the probable accuaracy of the temperature scale so defined, in the interval 100 degrees to 500 degrees C, the authors have made some further measurements by the same method on the boiling-points...
Topics: temperature, thermometry, pyrometry and calorimetry, Heat flow, thermal and thermodynamic processes
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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The formula for the self-inductance L of a circular current was first given by Kirchhoff in the following form: L = 2/b l/[log/sub /b e//(/b l// rho )-1.508], where /b l/ is the circumference of the circular axis and rho is the radius of the cross-section. If /b a/ be the radius, so that /b l/ = 2 pi /b a/ we get L = 4 pi /b a/[log/sub /b e//(8/b a// rho )-1.75]. More accurate formulae were then obtained by Maxwell, Rayleigh, and Wien. To illustrate the accuracy of the various formulae the...
Topics: inductance, Electrical instruments and techniques
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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After giving a brief review of previous determinations of the latent heat of fusion of ice, the authors describe in detail their investigation of this constant by two independent calorimetric methods. The first of these is the ordinary method of mixtures, the temperature measurements in which are made by means of sensitive Pt-thermometers, and the corrections inherent in the method very carefully determined; the second is an electrical method, in which the electrical heating serves to reduce...
Topics: specific heat and latent heat, Heat flow, thermal and thermodynamic processes
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Every complete system of electrical units requires four fundamental units, the need for an extra unit arising from the fact that the identity of mechanical and electrical phenomena has not been established. The international system is of the type which contains two electrical and two mechanical fundamental units, viz. ampere, ohm, centimetre, and second. One reason why the international system is the most used is because electric current is more familiar and of vastly greater practical...
Topics: measurements and use of instruments, electricity and magnetism, Electrical instruments and...
The author first gives Weinstein's and Stefan's formulae for the self-inductance of a circular coil of wire of rectangular section. The method of calculating the correction for the self-inductance of insulated round wire is next considered, and Maxwell's correction, which has been re-computed by Chree, is adopted. Maxwell stated that the geometrical mean distance of two squares side by side is 0.99401 times the distance between their centres. The author, by calculating on the lines laid down by...
Topics: electromagnetic induction, measurements and use of instruments, Electrical instruments and...
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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When it is desired to determine the resistivity of a fairly large portion of earth extending to a considerable depth, and it is not possible to disturb the portion of the earth to be measured, the following method is applicable. Four holes, 1, 2, 3, 4, are made in the earth approximately uniformly spaced in a straight line. The diam, of the holes is not more than 10% of the distance /b a/ between them, and all holes extend to approximately the same depth /b b/, usually that depth at which we...
Topic: measurements and use of instruments/ B8000 Power systems and applications
1. Fraunhofer's A band (wave-length 0.760 mu) and a considerable region of greater wave-length have been photographed in numerous stellar spectra by means of plates sensitised with dicyanin. 2. A strong band at 0.760 mu, nearly coincident with A, has been discovered in spectra of Class M. It is very marked in Mb and Md spectra, and may be useful for purposes of classification. 3. The titanium arc shows flutings near this wave-length, which probably correspond to the stellar bands. 4. In spectra...
Topics: astronomy, photography, General Physics
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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In an instrument for transferring from alternating to direct current it is requisite that the torque shall be the same, and it is immaterial whether we make the current- distribution the same or the field due to the current the same. The latter method is adopted in the instrument described. The field "coil" consists of two coaxial copper tubes, thus giving a circular magnetic field in the space between the tubes. It is shown that if we have axial symmetry the magnetic field at any...
Topics: apparatus and instruments, Electrical instruments and techniques
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Misunderstanding has arisen concerning the volume effect in the silver voltameter, and some writers have even questioned its reality. A large quantity of data is therefore given to prove the existence of the effect and to explain the cause of it. The results are divided into three classes. The first class includes a number of voltameter determinations made with the ordinary commercially pure silver nitrate. In the second class the salt used was tested by means of potassium permanganate for...
Topics: electrolysis, measurements and use of instruments, Electrical instruments and techniques
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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The densities of copper sulphate-sulphuric acid solutions of varying concentrations have been determined at 25 degrees and 40 degrees . The concentrations of the solutions varied from 50 gm, to 300 gm. of total solute per kg. of solution. Within the range studied the density of the solutions is approximately a linear function of the concentration. The densities of solutions of equal-weight (not equivalent) concentrations of copper sulphate (CuSO/sub 4/5H/sub 2/O) and of sulphuric acid are...
Topics: solution and solubility, Physical chemistry
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Bingham, Eugene C.; Jackson, Richard F.
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As a result of the investigation of various liquids for use as standards in the calibration of viscometers of several forms, it is concluded that mixtures of 20, 40, and 60% ethyl alcohol in water (by weight), and solutions of 20, 40, and 60% of surcrose are the most suitable. Tabulated values of the viscosities and fluidities of these liquids from 0 degrees to 100 degrees C. at intervals of 10 deg. C. are given. From the curves of fluidities given it is considered that, owing to their simple...
Topics: viscosity, General Physics
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Brooks, H.B.
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A method of testing instrument transformers by means of ordinary commercial testing instruments is described. It has to be remembered that from the practical point of view we need only take account of these errors in ratio or phase angle which produce a visible error in the reading of the indicating wattmeter. A wattmeter is taken and used in such a way that differences in ratio or phase angle of the transformer being tested and a standard transformer may be most readily detected. The method is...
Topics: transformers, rotary converters and boosters, measurements and use of instruments/ B8300 Power...
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Vinal, George W.
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A study of the various methods of measuring the time-constants of four-terminal resistance standards, which are classified into two main types, viz. (1) those in which the working material is formed into a /b closed/ circuit of as little self-inductance as possible, and the potential leads kept free from all inductive effects, and (2) those in which the potential leads are placed as close as possible to this working resistance so that the mutual inductance of the lead and the resistance is...
Topics: inductance, Condensed matter, electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties
Modern instrument transformers have such good characteristics that it is not easy to determine their constants by using wattmeters or watt-hour meters in both primary and secondary circuits. The small differences to be measured are masked by errors of measurement, and such a method is not applicable to high voltages or large current-ranges. A modern induction watt-hour meter, however, can be used to determine /b difference/ in ratios and /b difference/ in phase angles between two voltage- or...
Topics: measurements and use of instruments, transformers, rotary converters and boosters/ B8300 Power...
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Osborne, Nathan S.; Van Dusen, Milton S.
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The author has already referred to the standardisation of the perikon detector, for the same conditions of frequency and coupling, by comparison with a thermo-element. He now makes use of this arrangement, a galvanometer of 2000 ohms' resistance and sensitiveness 1.28*10/sup -9/ amp being used with the dector. In the following table are given the received current and received energy, measured in this way for various sending stations, the measurements being made at the U.S. Naval Wireless...
Topic: radiotelegraphy/ B6210F Telegraphy
Particulars have been given of some tests on tubes containing helium with a view to their being used as standards of light. It was then found that small differences in thickness in the bore of the capillary tubes used introduced errors and more uniform tubes, which were also fairly free from striations, have since been obtained. Details of the photometric tests to which these tubes were subjected are given. The mean deviation in candle-power per cm. length of tube is found to be 1.15 per cent.,...
Topic: photometry
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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The investigations carried out up to the present time on the equilibrium diagram of the iron-carbon system cannot b6 regarded as exhaustive, because in no case have the investigators worked with pure materials. On this account the authors have prepared a series of alloys containing 0.08 to 3.27% of carbon to serve as the basis for an accurate study of the thermal equilibrium of the Fe-C system. Pure iron has been made by the electrolysis of American ingot iron, and a detailed study has been...
Topics: metallography and properties and treatment of metals and alloys, Electrochemistry and...
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Coblentz, W.W.
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Greater sensitiveness is obtained by placing the whole in a vacuum.
Topic: apparatus and instruments/ B7500 Medical physics and biomedical engineering
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Topic: table of contents
It is found that a close approximation to uniformity of magnetic flux along a test rod can be secured by using properly constructed specimens and yokes and properly distributed magnetising coils. The double bar and yoke form of magnetic circuit seems to offer the greatest number of advantages and the fewest disadvantages. The reluctance of the yoke and joints can be kept very small. This is accomplished by having the yokes short and of moderately large cross-section, and making the surface of...
Topics: magnetism, measurements and use of instruments, Magnetic properties and materials A4100 Electricity...
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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An investigation dealing with the adaptation of the resistance thermometer to calorimetric and other uses for which the ordinary form is not suited. The first part of the paper contains a description of the instrument and its calibration, the second part deals with the determination of the transition-point of sodium sulphate by means of two of the thermometers. The value found by Richard and Wells was 32.888 degrees C.; the redetermination by the authors gave 32.384 degrees .
Topics: thermometry, pyrometry and calorimetry, Heat flow, thermal and thermodynamic processes
Topics: alternating-current research, inductance, Electricity and magnetism, fields and charged particles
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Hyde, E.P.; Brooks, H.B.
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apparatus and instruments; Electricity and magnetism; fields and charged particles
Topic: USA
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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In 1896 Wien described the construction of a convenient and permanent form of inductance standard, the spool being of serpentine. This form of inductance standard has since been manufactured by several of the German instrument makers, and the Bureau of Standards has purchased a considerable number of them. In attempting measurements of high precision on these coils discrepancies were found which were difficult to understand until investigation showed the serpentine to be slightly magnetic and...
Topics: measurements and use of instruments, Electrical instruments and techniques
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Ives, Herbert E.
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rays and radiation;
Topic: USA
Further experiments show that platinum ware in the form of crucibles of whatever degree of purity behaves, with respect to gain or loss of weight, on heating in air at ordinary atmospheric pressure in a manner characteristic only of the temperature of heating. Each impurity, such as Ir, Rh, or Fe, appears to exert its effect on the volatilisation independently, but the loss on heating is negligible below 900 degrees with crucibles of all degrees of purity containing Ir, Rh, Fe, and Si (up to at...
Topics: chemical physics and electro-chemistry, Physical chemistry
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Burgess, G.K.; Crowe, J.J.
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Topics: metallography and properties and treatment of metals and alloys, Physical chemistry
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Topic: table of contents
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Coblentz, W.W.
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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Coblentz, W.W.
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Topics: light reflection, thermoelectricity, Condensed matter, electronic structure, electrical, magnetic,...
In magnetic measurements made at the Bureau of Standards it has been found that the heating effect of the current, employed to produce fields of 100 to 300 gauss, changes appreciably the value of the induction for a given field. The usual practice, when an accuracy of 1 % is desired, has been to immerse the coil in an oil bath maintained at a constant temperature of 25 degrees . The object of the present investigation is to determine the magnitude of the temperature effect and to see whether it...
Topics: magnetism, Magnetic properties and materials A4100 Electricity and magnetism, fields and charged...
A more comprehensive account of the device described in.
Topic: apparatus and instruments
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Dickinson, H.C.; Mueller, E.F.
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A general description of an improved form of calorimetric resistance thermometer is given, together with some points of interest in connection with its use. The essential features of such a thermometer, to which attention has been given, are enumerated. A difference formula for simplifying calorimetric computations is developed in the paper, and its applicability shown.
Topics: thermometry, pyrometry and calorimetry, Heat flow, thermal and thermodynamic processes
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Ives, Herbert E.
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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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An experimental investigation of the conditions for the production of oscillations by means of an arc placed (1) in air, (2) in hydrogen, (3) in steam, (4) in compressed air. In air the arc was formed (240-volt circuit) with electrodes of solid carbon, cored carbon copper, graphite, and copper as anode with carbon kathode. In all cases oscillations of frequency 100,000 per sec. were obtained, thus confirming Salomonson's results, but only in the case of graphite electrodes were steady...
Topics: radiotelegraphy, discharges (electric), oscillations and waves (electric)/ B6210 Telecommunication...
In connection with the proposed systematisation of heterochromatic measurements the work described was planned to show the difference to be expected between individuals and to include readings by a large number of observers so as to establish average values for various measurements involving colour differences. The paper is divided into sections dealing with: Measurements on the Ives-Kingsbury solutions for selection of observers; measurements on blue glasses; other measurements by selected...
Topics: measurements and use of instruments, photometry
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Nutting, P.G.
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The small 500-volt Crocker-Wheeler bipolar dynamos, capable of giving 0.22 amp. as a maximum, are belt-driven by a 2-h.p. motor, the armatures being connected in series, thus giving 5,000 volts, and the fields in parallel, the latter being excited from a separate circuit. By means of a speed controller the voltage may be held constant, between 3,000 and 5,000 volts, to within 1 per cent. For gas-conductivity work requiring about 1 milliamp. a continuously variable resistance of about 5 megohms...
Topics: apparatus and instruments, Condensed matter, electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and...
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Fitch, T.T.; Huber, C.J.
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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Blum, William
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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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The two formulae employed by Coffin give results in very close agreement, and the only question remaining is whether the two closely-agreeing formulae are as accurate when applied to the coil in question as they appear to be. In deriving the formulae the current is supposed to be uniformly distributed over the surface of the cylinder, whereas the coil is actually wound with 661 turns of round wire having a diam. of 0.0634 cm. and insulated by a covering 0.0030 cm. thick. The author shows that...
Topics: electromagnetic induction, Electrical instruments and techniques
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Nutting, P.G.
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The authors have adapted (1) the continuous-flow calorimeter, and (2) the vacuum-jacketed (Dewar flask) calorimeter to the determination of specific heats of liquids over a temperature-range of a few degrees in the interval between -35 degrees and 20 degrees , measurement of temperature being made by Pt-resistance thermometers, and heat being supplied electrically and measured accurately by the potentiometer method. By the use of the flow calorimeter an accurate determination of the...
Topics: measurements and use of instruments, specific heat and latent heat, Heat flow, thermal and...
Four bridge methods (one of them due to Wien) for obtaining simultaneously the ratio of two capacities and the difference of their power-factors are described. Various sources of error and the requisite methods for eliminating them are discussed. By the use of an auxiliary condenser, two condensers may be compared by substitution. This procedure has the advantage that electrostatic effects are eliminated, and only the relative values of the resistances and inductances of the bridge arms need to...
Topics: capacitance, dielectric materials, measurements and use of instruments, Condensed matter,...
The author first reviews the work dealing with the action of this detector, and then describes experiments made with a view to studying the action of alternating currents of low frequency and to settling some outstanding points which are the subject of controversy. The following appear to be the more important points in the author's summary of conclusions. The detector is capable of detecting a few ten-thousandths of a volt (alternating current of low frequency), and with moderate polarisation...
Topics: oscillations and waves (electric), Electricity and magnetism, fields and charged particles
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
by Buckingham, Edgar
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Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Topics: lamps and lighting, measurements and use of instruments/ B8530B Light sources
In judging the condition of water in minerals, the main difficulty is to find substances which in the anhydrous state are free from absorption bands liable to be confused with the absorption bands of water at 1.5, 2.8, 4.75, and 6 mu. This is practically impossible, and the best that can be done is to investigate different substances in different regions of the spectrum. A given column of water-vapour is far more transparent than the same column when condensed into a liquid film over the same...
Topics: absorption (light and heat), spectra
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Topic: index
Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards
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Topic: index